2. Volunteer Tourism: How to be a world-class volunteer

3 Chapters 14 Lessons None

What you'll learn during this course

cultural differences

Find out more about the country where you are going to volunteer! Move your mouse over the country that you are interested in to find information about the country and its scores on Hofstede's six dimensions of national culture.

Find the definition of each dimension underneath the map.


"This dimension expresses the degree to which the less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. The fundamental issue here is how a society handles inequalities among people.

People in societies exhibiting a large degree of Power Distance accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. In societies with low Power Distance, people strive to equalise the distribution of power and demand justification for inequalities of power." (Hofstede Insights, 2019)


"The high side of this dimension, called Individualism, can be defined as a preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are expected to take care of only themselves and their immediate families.

Its opposite, Collectivism, represents a preference for a tightly-knit framework in society in which individuals can expect their relatives or members of a particular ingroup to look after them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty. A society’s position on this dimension is reflected in whether people’s self-image is defined in terms of “I” or “we.” (Hofstede Insights, 2019)


"The Masculinity side of this dimension represents a preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness, and material rewards for success. Society at large is more competitive. Its opposite, Femininity, stands for a preference for cooperation, modesty, caring for the weak and quality of life. Society at large is more consensus-oriented.

In the business context Masculinity versus Femininity is sometimes also related to as “tough versus tender” cultures." (Hofstede Insights, 2019)


"The Uncertainty Avoidance dimension expresses the degree to which the members of a society feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity. The fundamental issue here is how a society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try to control the future or just let it happen?

Countries exhibiting strong UAI maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour, and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. Weak UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than principles." (Hofstede Insights, 2019)


"Every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and the future. Societies prioritize these two existential goals differently.

Societies who score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with suspicion.

Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.

In the business context, this dimension is referred to as “(short-term) normative versus (long-term) pragmatic” (PRA). In the academic environment, the terminology Monumentalism versus Flexhumility is sometimes also used." (Hofstede Insights, 2019)


"Indulgence stands for a society that allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun. Restraint stands for a society that suppresses gratification of needs and regulates it by means of strict social norms." (Hofstede Insights, 2019)

Chapter overview

Total duration:

10-15 minutes

Course rating:

Chapter goal:

The volunteer is able to recognise and understand cultural differences and knows how to deal with them. 

Lessons in this chapter:

  • Lesson 1: Introduction
  • Lesson 2: Why is it important to know how to deal with cultural differences?
  • Lesson 3: What should I understand about cultural differences?
  • Lesson 4: Test your knowledge
  • Lesson 5:  Apply your knowledge


  • Knowledge tests
  • Moment of reflection and evaluation

Next lesson: Why is it important to know how to deal with cultural differences?